Recently, even some environmentalists are pointing to a the World Bank report showing that moving toward 100% solar, wind, and electric battery energy would be “just as destructive to the planet as fossil fuels.” This was the conclusion of a story in Foreign Policy magazine in 2019, The Limits of Clean Energy.
Here are the estimates, of how much minerals would be needed:
- 34 million metric tons of copper
- 40 million tons of lead
- 50 million tons of zinc
- 162 million tons of aluminum
- 4.8 billion tons of iron